Session 10 – Gene Editing & Microbiome
Date: 26 July (Friday) 14:00 – 18:00 Venue: 3F, Bldg. A, CTBC Financial Park, Ballroom B
Chief, Division of Translational Research
Taipei Veterans General Hospital
In medical research career, Prof. Wu received his M.D. from National Taiwan University (NTU) in 1991, M.P.H. from Harvard School of Public Health in 1993, and Ph.D. from NTU in 2007. Prof. Wu has positions as the Chief of Translational Research and Professor of Gastroenterology in Taipei Veterans General Hospital, and also Professor of Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University (NYMU). Prof. Wu establishes Taiwan Microbiome Consortium and currently serves as the first President. Prof. Wu is now the Editor-in-Chief of Advances in Digestive Medicine, and editorial member of Gut. Prof. Wu has published many articles in top ranking journals such as JAMA, J Clinical Oncology, Gastroenterology, JAMA Intern Med, Gut, J of Hepatology, Hepatology, Annals of Surgery, Biosens Bioelectron, etc. Prof. Wu owns several patents, and also the winner of “2016 National Innovation Award”, “2015 Outstanding Research Award”, and “2015 Emerging Leadership Award”, Asia-Pacific Digestive Week. Prof.
Prof. Wu is also very active in legal societies. He received his LL.B. from Tunghai University (TU) in 2000 and LL.M. from Harvard Law School in 2003. He is the previous President of Taiwan Society of Law and Medicine and Professor of Law in College of Law at the TU. Prof. Wu published four law textbooks, four chapters in law books, and more than 60 articles in peer-reviewed journals. Prof. Wu’s evidence-based research has become the important basis of many Taiwan’s nationwide policies regarding medical malpractice. Prof. Wu is the winner of the “2018 Medical Model Award”, Taiwan Medical Association Session Speech Title & Synopsis: Gut Microbiota: the key to human health and diseases?
Human intestinal tract harbors a complex microbial community with approximately 100 trillion cells, about 10 times of the number of human cells and 100 times of the number of human genes. This complex microbial community is called gut microbiota. The development of next generation sequencing technologies make it possible to explore the composition of gut microbial community, most of them are not cultivable. Human microbiota can be considered as the second genome of human beings.
Gut microbiota is stabilized in the first years after birth via the vertical transmission from parents and close contract with family members. Environmental factors, such as diet, medication, exercise, etc., further shape gut microbiota characteristics thereafter. Each subject’s gut microbiota is unique, but changes with time. Gut microbiota interacted with human immune system and triggers several inflammatory related pathways, which are associated with many human diseases, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cancers, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurological and psychiatric diseases, etc.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the translocation of gut microbiota to treat human diseases by re-colonization of normal gut microbiota in patients. A couple of human diseases have been treated successfully by FMT in recently randomized clinical trials. FMT has been demonstrated to be superior than traditional antibiotics treatment in patients with refractory pseudomembranous colitis, infected by Clostridium difficile. FMT is also approved to be effective in some subset of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. There are many ongoing clinical trials to examine the efficacy and safety of FMT in treating obesity, metabolic diseases, psychiatric diseases, cancer and autoimmune diseases.
Gut microbiota plays important roles in shaping and treating human diseases. Exploring the complicated interactions between gut microbiota and human diseases will provides many new diagnostic and therapeutic methods for human diseases and will be the most exciting fields of 21st century.